China' s advance to the forefront of scientific research is one of the 21st century's most surprising developments, with implications for a world where knowledge is arguably “the one ring that rules them all”. This paper shows that China's contribution to global science exceeds standard addressed-based measures of publications, which ignore Chinese researchers with non-China addresses and most of the huge expansion of Chinese language scientific journals. Taking account of these contributions, we attribute to China 36% of 2016 global scientific publications, with Chinese language publications adjusted for rough equivalence to articles in largely English international journals. Improvements in the quality of Chinese research papers, evinced by increases in their citations, particularly from non-Chinese addressed papers, gainsays criticisms that China's scientific advance is in quantity not quality of research. Taking account of papers with China addresses, Chinese researchers with non-China addresses and the expansion of Chinese language journals, we find that 37% of three year forward citations to papers published in 2013 are attributable to Chinese research. We make the case that China has established a new comparative advantage in knowledge that will impact trade and the division of labor among countries and the future direction of research and technological and economic change around he world.